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Did you know that... the Archaeological Site of Clunia

 

It is located at the top of the hill called Alto de Castro, in Peñalba de Castro, province of Burgos, and that the waters of the river Arandilla, in its search for union with the river Duero, flow at the foot of this hill. It is known that before the Romans arrived in the Peninsula Ibérica, this area was inhabited by Arevacos, as corroborated by the remains found in the Alto del Cuerno, very close to the site of the Roman Clunia. This Celtiberian settlement was called Cluniaco or Kolounioukou, which later derived into Clunia. In Alto de Castro have only been found the remains of what was one of the main Roman cities in northern Spain that was founded in the early first century after Christ, being emperor of Rome Tiberius which granted the status of Roman municipality and the power to mint coins. In the middle of that century it became the capital of a legal convent and as such became the legal and religious centre of a large territory. The importance and splendour of Clunia grew between the 1st and 2nd centuries after Christ. It was reached by some of the main Roman roads.

Archaeological Site of Clunia

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A little more history

 

Ptolemy, in the 2nd century AD, cites Clunia as a colony for the first time with his full name Colonia Clunia Sulpicia; a name given to him when the death of Nero was known, in 68 AD, General Sulpicio Galba proclaimed himself emperor, although it was Vespasian who finally took command of the empire. However, in the days of Servio Sulpicio Galba, Clunia was the capital of the Empire. This prosperity was maintained until at the end of the third century began a slight decline that gradually increased to end almost in anonymity under the rule of the Visigoths in the fifth and sixth centuries. Despite all this Clunia continued to persist. It was Christianized very soon, as can be seen in the necropolis around the Ermita de Castro. The Muslims took the city and its surroundings around the year 713, then the place was reconquered and repopulated by Christians in the year 912. Later the Alto de Castro became the property of the Church until with the confiscations, the place remained in the hands of private individuals until the town of Peñalba de Castro was built and took over the enclave of Clunia and the few remains, not yet buried, that remained of the abandoned Roman city.

Archaeological Site of Clunia

What to see in the Archaeological Site of Clunia?

 

The archaeological work carried out in Clunia has uncovered remains that show us how its urban structure was, the importance and evolution throughout the centuries of its history as well as showing the way of life of its inhabitants, customs, economy, culture ... Step by step the visitor is going to discover the forum, public square, all of it porticoed, it was the neuralgic center, in it trials were developed, commercial transactions were closed, and in the temple of Jupiter that presided over the head of the place, religiosity had its place. The thermal baths, a social and recreational place where, in addition to taking care of hygiene and the cult of the body, was the meeting place for conversation. 

Archaeological Site of Clunia

To discover

 

In Clunia there were three thermal complexes, those of Arcos I and II, that although independent are constructed in the same zone with the purpose of taking better advantage of the water of the subsoil, and the small Thermal Baths of the Forum. The Virgen de Castro hermitage is located on the site of the monumental Flavio building. Houses, streets in which, with imagination, it is still believed to be able to listen to the hustle and bustle of the city. And of course, in a city of the importance of Clunia, the theatre was built in the first century, semi-excavado in the hillside and with capacity for more or less 10,000 people. In the beginning it was the place of interpretation of theatrical works of the classic period; after the remodeling of the II century it became a place where the spectacles of beasts and fights were guaranteed, that is to say an amphitheater or circus.

Archaeological Site of Clunia

Festivities

 

In the hermitage of the Virgin of Castro, located inside the Archaeological Site of Clunia, pilgrimages and celebrations are carried out on different dates of the year. The festivity of the Virgin of Castro is on the 8th of September but nowadays it is celebrated on the last weekend of August.

 

Traditions

 

As tradition dictates, on the third Sunday of April, a pilgrimage arrives at the hermitage of the Virgen de Castro. The residents of the villages in the area start from Caleruega and carry the image of Santo Domingo de Guzmán on their shoulders, travelling the road from Caleruega to Peñalba de Castro, passing through Arauzo de Torre. Once inside the enclosure of the Archaeological Site of Clunia it is the women of Peñalba de Castro who receive the "Santito" and take him to the hermitage of the Virgin of Castro. After the mass the music plays; charangas, dances and a good agape complete this festive day.

 

Curiosities

 

Since 1999, a Youth Festival of Grecolatino Theatre of Clunia has been held in the Roman theatre of Clunia. This festival, in addition to presenting the rich historical and architectural heritage of the Roman city of Clunia, strives to promote the culture and literature that the classics have bequeathed to us.

Archaeological Site of Clunia

Useful information for visiting the Archaeological Site of Clunia

 

  • The archaeological site is open all year round, except on Mondays, and 24th, 25th and 31st December and 1st January.
  • The service of tourist attention is from the middle of February. 
  • The archaeological site's Interpretation Room can be visited from Tuesday to Sunday within the stipulated schedule.
  • Winter visiting hours are from 10 am to 2 pm and from 3 pm to 5 pm and summer visiting hours are from 10 am to 2 pm and from 4 pm to 8 pm.
  • Access to the archaeological site is not permitted half an hour before the site's closing time.
  • Dogs are allowed in the visit as long as they are on a leash..
  • The mosaics are currently covered for conservation.
  • For more information, the archaeological site's telephone number is 947 391 250.

 

 

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The Legend

 

The Roman Clunia is located above a large aquifer known as the Cave of San Román, a karstic complex formed by galleries and underground lagoons that the Romans knew how to take advantage of by constructing, within the galleries, several cisterns with their corresponding water intake channels. But the Cave of San Román treasures in its interior a magical place, a sacred place, a small cavity, which is known as the Priapic Sanctuary, and where a group of itifalic figures and masks have been found, made of the tender mud of the same galleries, some of them with inscriptions made with the fingers or some sharp object.

 

 

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Get to Peñalba de Castro

 

Peñalba de Castro can be reached via the BU-925 road that links it with Coruña del Conde and Aranda de Duero on one side and with Huerta de Rey and Salas de los Infantes on the other. We can also reach the town from Arauzo de Torre. Peñalba de Castro has a bus stop which, from Monday to Friday, covers the route Aranda de Duero-Salas Infantes.

 

Once there

 

All we have to do is follow the signs that lead us to the entrance door to the archaeological site, where the ticket offices and the information point are located. We will have a first car park next to the ticket offices, and a second car park inside the enclosure, next to the main archaeological site.

 

 

 


SENDITUR is not responsible for any variation in the information described, as well as for the misuse of its guides and recommends that everyone be responsible and prudent in carrying out the activity. Likewise, we invite you to document yourself with books and specialized guides to complement the information described. From the commitment of SENDITUR with Nature and the respect to the balance of the environment, SENDITUR urges you to travel in a responsible way, with low environmental impact and respecting at all times the Natural, Cultural and Social environment wherever you go. For any suggestion, SENDITUR invites you to send an email to

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List of Routes
  • Closeness
  • First name
  • Difficulty
  • Distance
  • Duration
  • Assessment
PATHS IN FAMILY NATURAL HERITAGE
4
Difficulty-Low

0:20 h.1.4 km.

The Yecla
Difficulty-LowGreen difficulty category, level 2. Short walks, with little slope and without difficulties.
PATHS CULTURAL HERITAGE
1
Difficulty-Medium

2:50 h.10.2 km.

Path of the Gullurias
Difficulty-MediumCategory of difficulty green, level 3. Excursions of moderate distance and unevenness, not even over great distances or unevenness.
TOURISM
0
Difficulty-Low

2:00 h.1.6 km.

Escape through Aranda de Duero and its monuments
Difficulty-LowGreen difficulty category, level 2. Short walks, with little slope and without difficulties.
IN FAMILY NATURAL HERITAGE
1
Difficulty-Low

1:20 h.5.6 km.

Gorge of Mataviejas
Difficulty-LowGreen difficulty category, level 2. Short walks, with little slope and without difficulties.
TOURISM
0
Difficulty-Low

1:45 h.2.2 km.

Walk through Lerma monumental villa
Difficulty-LowGreen difficulty category, level 2. Short walks, with little slope and without difficulties.
PATHS IN FAMILY NATURAL HERITAGE
1
Difficulty-Adapted

1:00 h.3.2 km.

Natural Monument of La Fuentona
Difficulty-AdaptedGreen difficulty category, level 1. Itineraries conditioned and prepared for the use and enjoyment of people with reduced mobility.
FLORA AND FAUNA PATHS NATURAL HERITAGE
0
Difficulty-Medium

1:50 h.5.6 km.

Trail of the two rivers
Difficulty-MediumCategory of difficulty green, level 3. Excursions of moderate distance and unevenness, not even over great distances or unevenness.
FLORA AND FAUNA IN FAMILY CULTURAL HERITAGE NATURAL HERITAGE
1
Difficulty-Low

0:45 h.2.4 km.

Hermitage of San Frutos
Difficulty-LowGreen difficulty category, level 2. Short walks, with little unevenness and without difficulties.
TOURISM
1
Difficulty-Low

96:00 h.393 km.

Route through the charming villages of Burgos
Difficulty-LowGreen difficulty category, level 2. Short walks, with little slope and without difficulties.
Castle of Peñaranda de Duero
Peñaranda de Duero, Burgos
Castle of Peñaranda de Duero

Defensive bastion between the mountain and the river

Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos
Santo Domingo de Silos, Burgos
Monastery of Santo Domingo de Silos

Benedictine monastery where the monks raise their prayers through Gregorian chant

Lobos River Canyon Natural Park
Ucero, Soria
Lobos River Canyon Natural Park

Rocks polished by natural elements that hold the memory of millions of years

Monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza
Hortigüela, Burgos
Monastery of San Pedro de Arlanza
Castle of Gormaz
Gormaz, Soria
Castle of Gormaz

According to the Song of Mio Cid, Castiello tan fuort

Sabinar of Calatañazor
Calatañazor, Soria
Sabinar of Calatañazor

Grandparents from another era

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