It is located between the regions of La Bureba and Las Merindades, in the northeast of the province of Burgos of which it forms part, and irrigated by the river Oca is submerged in the Natural Park of Montes Obarenes-San Zadornil. In the surroundings of Oña caves have been found in which Palaeolithic art has left its mark, such as the cave of El Caballón, the cave of Los Moros, La Blanca... The Christians defensive bulwark against the Islamic invasion in the 8th century. It was not until the 10th century that Fernán González granted it its first privileges. The true importance of Oña in the history of Castile comes from the year 1011 in which the Castilian Count Don Sancho García founds the Monastery of El Salvador and places his daughter Trigidia as abbess of the monks and nuns who inhabited it in its origin until in the year 1033 the Benedictine rule is established in it.
The history of the town of Oña has from that moment been linked to the Benedictine abbey, becoming the lordship of its abbots. Its economic and political importance was such that the disputes and rivalries with the bishopric of Burgos did not take long to arrive. Elected by sovereigns and kings as Chamber and Court, which also conferred privileges and exemptions on Oña, he contributed to the important economic development of the town, which undoubtedly attracted a large Jewish community. Charles I and Philip II reached Oña, staying in the monastery that would have become the most powerful in Castile. With the fall of the Old Regime in the nineteenth century, the town was established as a constitutional council with the name of Oña and its Farms belonging to the party Briviesca in the region of Old Castile. Nowadays Oña is a town that lives the present but shows off its glorious medieval past.
Oña, with steep and narrow streets, with a marked medieval air, keeps of its walls only one of the gates, the so-called Arco de la Estrella, located on one side of the church of San Juan, in the Town Hall square. This church, which was the parish of the town, was built between the twelfth and sixteenth centuries and next to it the Romanesque tower of San Juan houses the Resin Museum. An unmissable visit in Oña is the Monastery of El Salvador, from the 11th century, with its monastic church, now a parish church, of San Salvador, a true museum of the history of art, its staircases, its portico, its Gothic cloister. In an environment of great environmental, landscape and natural value such as the Natural Park of Montes Obarenes-San Zadornil, in which Oña is located, there is an attractive network of paths in which the walker can discover and enjoy nature, and for this the House of the Park, which is located in the old cow farm of the Monastery of San Salvador, in the old orchards and gardens of the monastery, offers the necessary information to walk through them. Also from the House of the Park there is a path, a pleasant and short walk through canals and fountains of the sixteenth century to a viewpoint called Vista Alegre or the hermitage of Santo Toribio.
Four patron saints, four festivities, although the two official festivities of the town are for San Vítores on 26 August and for Santa Paulina on 21 October, Oña also celebrates San Iñigo on 1 June and San Juan is honoured on 24 June.
In the Monastery of San Salvador, towards the middle of the 16th century, the Benedictine monk Fray Pedro Ponce de León invented the method of dactilological language, the world-wide used language of signs.
The Cronicón de Oña, which is a theatrical representation of the medieval history of the town carried out by the onienses, has become an important appointment within the cultural agenda of the place. Every August, for five days, always around the weekend linked to the 15th of August, the abbey church of San Salvador becomes the best possible setting for the occasion.
It is believed that the name Vurovio, ancient god of the time of the Autrigones, which is represented in the three aras of the third century after Christ that are preserved in the church of San Salvador, derived the origin of the toponym La Bureba.
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As far as Oña we arrive following the N-232, national road that crosses the locality and that communicates it with Burgos, Logroño, Santander, Vitoria and Miranda de Ebro. Oña is also reached by local roads that connect it with neighbouring villages.
Oña has bus services from different companies that daily connect it with Burgos and Bilbao.
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